Accident or Abuse: Bertocci awarded NIJ grant for research into child injuries

May 22, 2018

headshot of Dr. Gina BertocciDr. Gina Bertocci recently received a grant for $599,876 from the National Institute of Justice for her research into, “Biomechanical characterization of video recorded short distance falls in children.” The project is aimed to provide forensic data to help identify the causes of trauma in young children who may not be able to communicate instances of abuse. Bertocci’s research looks to even the field, not only serving to identify victims of physical abuse, but to aid parents who were wrongly accused.

“We know that falls do happen and those falls sometimes do produce injuries. We also know that the history of the fall is that the fall is the most commonly given excuse by caregivers to hide abuse,” Bertocci said. “We want to be able to intervene early for those kids who have been abused.”

Attending the University of Pittsburgh for the entirety of her education, she began a professional relationship with Dr. Mary Clyde Pierce, a medical practitioner who called upon Bertocci’s background in mechanical and bioengineering. It was through that encounter that Bertocci’s work, which followed her to the Speed School, in helping clinicians to better understand pediatric injury and to use engineering techniques for early detection of child abuse.

Since focusing her research on pediatric injury, she has been requested at various times to serve as a an expert witness. Through those experiences, Bertocci’s research has evolved to fill the gaps both from a clinical and forensics perspective to delineate between abuse and accidents, specific to falls, the most commonly attributed cause of injury in cases of suspected abuse.

For her newest research, Bertocci is working with a local daycare to capture, safely and with parental permission, video of children falling in a controlled environment.  

“We use crash test dummies," said Bertocci. "We have studies that are ongoing where we are working with clinicians working with children who have come into an ER setting, to better understand a lot of injuries associated with a fall.”

As part of that process, her team have selected a location that features a variety of surfaces, which can account for any potential differences upon impact, as well as mounted head cameras, that can help identify the velocity of a fall from standing position. It’s through that data, along with several other factors, that Bertocci hopes to develop a database for future use in legal or criminal cases.

“There is an absence of evidence-based data, which has led to a controversy in biomechanical compatibility. Our goal is to improve the accuracy in forensic biomechanical compatibility," Bertocci said. "In order to plug this gap, related to not having witnessed short distanced falls, how can we fill that gap? The one way is to video record kids in a natural setting. And to capture them in a natural environment, while they’re playing.”

Ultimately, this research allows Bertocci to help children without a voice, by providing reproducible evidence to a common problem in distinguishing abuse from an accident, which is often difficult to determine with children who are not only incapable of communication, but are still developing their basic motor skills.

“The children who are at greatest risk are those who are between 0-1 year old and they are not able to communicate." said Bertocci." They’re choosing the study. Even when you’re 1-3 years old, there is still, I think, 74% of abuse victims were children who are less than 3 years old.”

El-Baz Receives NIH Grant for Renal Research

May 17, 2018

 Bioengineering Chair Dr. Ayman El-Baz is leading a team of researchers working on a non-invasive computer aided diagnosis system to detect acute renal transplant rejection. The project, entitled ‘Big Data in Acute Renal Rejection,’ is designed to minimize not only the efficiency, but the cost of determining the viability of a transplant by integrating MRI image analyses with clinical biomarkers.

“The current technology, it uses biopsy. But there is the cost of the biopsy is more than 20K," said El-Baz. "The blood, it shows abnormality. There is no technique. We use a blood test. Basically, right now, we need to develop something that is non-invasive, and inexpensive. Biopsies are very expensive.”

Even if matched prior to an invasive surgery, a kidney may be rejected by the host after the operation. El-Baz hopes to employ his research to help determine in a non-intrusive and affordable way for both the patient and medical industry, the viability of a transplant.

A collaboration with the University of Michigan and University of Mansoura in Egypt, who the University recently completed a memorandum of understanding with, the project is funded by a substantial NIH grant that has previously seen proof of concept funding in the past. El-Baz hopes to use input images from an MRI Scanner to detect perfusion and diffusion parameters, using a machine learning fusion system to determine if a kidney qualifies as a non-rejection, or if the transplanted organ is suffering acute rejection.

Building on his background in bioimaging, new probability models, and model-based algorithms, he explains, “This is another way of using AI to advance the finding in the field of medicine.”

UofL signs MoU with Mansoura University

May 2, 2018

 Last week, the University of Louisville and Mansoura University in Egypt were united through a Memorandum of Understanding, signed by interim Provost Dr. Dale Billingsley. The MoU builds a community between the two universities, which now are set to offer joint degree programs, while fostering research and collaboration between both. The MoU, which affords opportunities for multi-cultural exchange, was spearheaded by Dr. Ayman El-Baz of the Department of Bioengineering with help by Dr. Guruprasad Anapathur Giridharan. 

“The MoU and the following programs will enhance UofL research and scholarly productivity, UofL reputation and recognition, and revenue, fister cultural exchange, and help train future scholars and thought leaders in Egypt,” said Giridharan.

The relationship between the Speed School and Mansoura University will provide access to a high caliber of international students, students who are either self-funded or who receive access to government scholarships. Additionally, it will help expedite the reciprocal share of data, including access to information from Mansoura medical centers, which contains large data sets integral to developing and validating big data approaches to medicine.

The MoU has already yielded results, intellectual property and manuscripts for the department of Bioengineering, and promises to enrich all parties involved. In addition to the already robust relationships established specifically between Bioengineering and Mansoura, Dr. Adel Elmaghraby, the chair of the Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science was present as well, expanding the collaboration beyond the confines of any one field of discipline.

According to Giridharan, this is only the beginning.

“We have letters of intent from other international universities and the BE department is currently in discussions with five international universities to sign MoUs, The chair of Abu Dhabi University came to visit us last week and the Dean of Abu Dhabi university is expected to visit the BE department in May.”