for Social Change: From Theory to Practice
1.1 More than a century ago, Emile Durkheim rejected the idea that education
could be the force to transform society and resolve social ills. Instead,
Durkheim concluded that education “can be reformed only if society itself
is reformed.” He argued that education “is only the image and reflection
of society. It imitates and reproduces the latter…it does not create it”
(Durkheim, 1897/1951: 372-373).
1.2 Most mainstream proposals for improving education in the United States
assume that our society is fundamentally sound, but that for some reason,
our schools are failing. Different critics target different villains:
poor quality teachers, pampered, disruptive or ill-prepared students,
the culture of their families, unions, bureaucrats, university schools
of education, tests that are too easy, or inadequate curriculum. But if
Durkheim was correct, a society has the school system it deserves. Denouncing
the poor quality of education is like blaming a mirror because you do
not like your reflection.
1.3 The first step in improving education is to recognize that the problems
plaguing our schools are rooted in the way our society is organized. We
live in a competitive economy where businesses and individuals continually
seek advantage and higher profits, and where people on the bottom rung
of the economic ladder are stigmatized as failures and blamed for their
condition. Our culture glorifies violence in sports, movies, video games, and on evening news broadcasts that celebrate the death of others through hygienic
strategic bombings. It is a society where no one feels obligated to pay taxes for
the broader social good and where welfare “reform” means denying benefits
to children if their parents cannot find work; a society that promotes
the need for instant gratification and uses youthful alienation to sell
products; a society where those who do not fit in are shunned (Bowles
& Gintis, 1976).
Under the circumstances, it is not surprising that our school system is
designed to sort children out and leave many uneducated. To legitimize
the way our society is organized, its schools teach competitive behavior
and social inequality as if they were fundamental law of nature. Just
as with the economy, some are rewarded in school, others are punished,
and both groups are taught that rewards and punishment are the result
of their own efforts (Kohn, 1999).
1.5 As a teacher educator and a public high school social studies teacher,
we try to avoid being overwhelmed by pessimism during debates over school
reform. Even though we believe that education will not be changed in isolation,
we recognize that efforts to improve schools can be part of a long term
struggle to create a more equitable society in the United States. We also
believe that students, especially high school students, must be part of
this struggle and that an important part of our job as teachers is to
help prepare them to participate as active citizens in a democratic society.
1.6 Should teachers encourage high school students to work for social change?
Thomas Jefferson believed that, in a democratic society, teachers do not
really have a choice. According to Jefferson, freedom and republican government
rest on two basic principles: “the diffusion of knowledge among the people”
and the idea that “a little rebellion now and then is a good thing.” Jefferson
supported the right to rebel because he recognized that the world was
constantly changing. The crucial question was not whether it would change,
but the direction of change. Education was essential so that ordinary
citizens could participate in this process, defending and enhancing their
In the United States, there has frequently been a close connection between
advocacy for mass public education and demands for expanding democracy,
social equity, and political reform. For example, in the mid-19th century,
Horace Mann championed public education because he believed that the success
of the country depended on “intelligence and virtue in the masses of the
people.” He argued that, “If we do not prepare children to become good
citizen...then our republic must go down to destruction” (The New York
1.8 John Dewey (1939) saw himself within this intellectual tradition. He believed
that democratic movements for human liberation were necessary to achieve
a fair distribution of political power and an “equitable system of human
liberties.” However, criticisms have been raised about limitations in
Deweyan approaches to education, especially the way they are practiced
in many elite private schools. Frequently, these schools are racially,
ethnically, and economically segregated, and therefore efforts to develop
classroom community ignore the spectrum of human difference and the continuing
impact of society’s attitudes about race, class, ethnicity, gender, social
conflict, and inequality on both teachers and students. In addition, because
of pressure on students to achieve high academic scores, teachers
maintain an undemocratic level of control over the classroom. Both of
these issues are addressed by Paulo Freire, who calls on educators to
aggressively challenge both injustice and unequal power arrangements in
the classroom and society.
1.9 Paulo Freire was born in Recife in northeastern Brazil, where his ideas
about education developed in response to military dictatorship, enormous
social inequality, and widespread adult illiteracy. As a result, his primary
pedagogical goal was to provide the world’s poor and oppressed with educational
experiences that make it possible for them to take control over their
own lives. Freire (1970; 1995) shared Dewey’s desire to stimulate students
to become “agents of curiosity” in a “quest for...the ‘why’ of things,”
and his belief that education provides possibility and hope for the future
of society. But he believes that these can only be achieved when students
are engaged in explicitly critiquing social injustice and actively organizing
to challenge oppression.
1.10 For Freire, education is a process of continuous group discussion (dialogue)
that enables people to acquire collective knowledge they can use to change
society. The role of the teacher includes asking questions that help students
identify problems facing their community (problem posing), working with
students to discover ideas or create symbols (representations) that explain
their life experiences (codification), and encouraging analysis of prior
experiences and of society as the basis for new academic understanding
and social action (conscientization) (Shor, 1987).
1.11 In a Deweyan classroom, the teacher is an expert who is responsible for
organizing experiences so that students learn content, social and academic
skills, and an appreciation for democratic living. Freire is concerned
that this arrangement reproduces the unequal power relationships that
exist in society. In a Freirean classroom, everyone has a recognized area
of expertise that includes, but is not limited to, understanding and explaining
their own life, and sharing this expertise becomes an essential element
in the classroom curriculum. In these classrooms, teachers have their
areas of expertise, but they are only one part of the community. The responsibility
for organizing experiences and struggles for social change belongs to the entire community;
as groups exercise this responsibility, they are empowered to take control
over their lives.
We agree with Freire’s concern that teachers address social inequality
and the powerlessness experienced by many of our students. We also recognize that it is difficult to imagine secondary school social
studies classrooms where teachers are responsible for covering specified
subject matter organized directly on Freirean principles. Maxine Greene
(1993a; 1993b;1993c), an educational philosopher who advocates a “curriculum
for human beings” integrating aspects of Freire, Dewey, and feminist thinking,
offers ways for teachers to introduce Freire’s pedagogical ideas into
1.13 Greene believes that, to create democratic classrooms, teachers must learn
to listen to student voices. Listening allows teachers to discover what
students are thinking, what concerns them, and what has meaning to them.
When teachers learn to listen, it is possible for teachers and students
to collectively search for historical, literary, and artistic metaphors
that make knowledge of the world accessible to us. In addition, the act
of listening creates possibilities for human empowerment; it counters
the marginalization experienced by students in school and in their lives,
it introduces multiple perspectives and cultural diversity into the classroom,
and it encourages students to take risks and contribute their social critiques
to the classroom dialogue.
1.14 Greene’s ideas are especially useful to social studies teachers. Just
as historians discuss history as an ongoing process that extends from
the past into the future, Greene sees individual and social development
as processes that are "always in the making." For Greene, ideas,
societies, and people are dynamic and always changing. She rejects the
idea that there are universal and absolute truths and predetermined conclusions.
According to Greene, learning is a search for “situated understanding”
that places ideas and events in their social, historical, and cultural
1.15 Greene believes that the human mind provides us with powerful tools for
knowing ourselves and others. She encourages students to combine critical
thinking with creative imagination in an effort to empathize with and
understand the lives, minds, and consciousness of human beings from the
past and of our contemporaries in the present. She sees the goal of learning
as discovering new questions about ourselves and the world, and this leads
her to examine events from different perspectives, to value the ideas
of other people, and to champion democracy.
1.16 During the Great Depression, striking Harlan County, Kentucky coal miners
sang a song called “Which Side Are You On?” (lyrics available on the web
at www.geocities.com/Nashville/ 3448/whichsid.html). In a book he co-authored
with Paulo Freire, Myles Horton (1990) of the Highlander School argued
that educators cannot be neutral either. He called neutrality “a code
word for the existing system. It has nothing to do with anything but agreeing
to what is and will always be. It was to me a refusal to oppose injustice
or to take sides that are unpopular” (p. 102).
1.17 James Banks (1991; 1993), an educational theorist whose focus is on the
development of social studies curriculum, shares the ideas that “knowledge
is not neutral,” and that “an important purpose of knowledge construction
is to help people improve society.” Although Banks is a strong advocate
of a multicultural approach to social studies, he argues that a “transformative”
curriculum depends less on the content of what is taught than on the willingness
of teachers to examine their own personal and cultural values and identities,
to change the ways they organize classrooms and relate to students, and
to actively commit themselves to social change.
1.18 The main ideas about education and society at the heart of the philosophies
of Dewey, Freire, Greene, Horton, and Banks are that society is always
changing and knowledge is not neutral—it either supports the status quo
or a potential new direction for society; people learn primarily from
what they experience; active citizens in a democratic society need to
be critical and imaginative thinkers; and students learn to be active
citizens by being active citizens. Assuming that we agree with these ideas,
we are still left with these questions: How do we translate educational
theory into practice? What do these ideas look like in the classroom?
1.19 In Alan Singer’s high school social studies classes before becoming a
teacher educator, he promoted transformative goals through direct student
involvement in social action projects as part of New York State’s “Participation
in Government” curriculum. In New York City, periodic budget crises, ongoing
racial and ethnic tension, and the need for social programs in poor communities
provided numerous opportunities to encourage students to become active
citizens. Class activities included sponsoring student forums on controversial
issues, preparing reports on school finances and presenting them as testimony
at public hearings, writing position papers for publication in local newspapers,
and organizing student and community support for a school-based public
health clinic. One of our most successful programs was organizing students
across the city to struggle for a condom availability program in the high
1.20 During each activity, social studies goals included making reasoned decisions
based on an evaluation of existing evidence, researching issues and presenting
information in writing and on graphs, exploring the underlying ideas that
shape our points of view, giving leadership by example to other students,
and taking collective and individual responsibility for the success of
1.21 Singer now works with a number of teachers who are part of the Hofstra
University New Teachers Network and who share a commitment to empower
students as social actvists and critical thinkers. Michael Pezone is a
high school social studies teacher in a working-class, largely African
American and Caribbean public high school in New York City where many
of his students have histories of poor performance in school. Pezone is
a former student in the Hofstra University School of Education and Allied
Human Services, a cooperating teacher in the program, and a mentor teacher
in our alumni group. Virtually ever social studies teacher education student
in the Hofstra program at one time or another visits Pezone’s classroom,
where he has involved his students and the pre-service teachers in exploring
the possibility of political action.
1.22 During the Fall semester of 2001, in response to the destruction of the
World Trade Center, the New York City Board of Education required all
public schools to lead students in the Pledge of Allegiance at the beginning
of each school day and at all school-wide assemblies and school events
(Pezone, 2002). Pezone’s students were confused about the law governing
behavior during the flag salute and concerned with defending the first
amendment rights of fellow students. They contacted the New York Civil
Liberties Union to clarify legal issues and learned that participation
was not required by law. They decided to monitor both compliance with
the directive’s requirement that the Pledge of Allegiance be recited each
day and freedom of dissent. They also circulated a questionnaire in the
school that asked students about their opinions on the issues, encouraged
students to behave respectfully and responsibly during the pledge, informed
them of their legal right not to participate, and asked them to report
violations of the law. The results of the student survey and student comments
were later distributed in the school’s magazine.
1.23 The next year (Fall, 2002), New York City initiated a new metal detector
program that made students up to one hour late for class every morning.
Pezone’s students organized to petition fellow students while they were
waiting for admission to the building. As a result of their efforts, the
problem was highlighted on a television news broadcast and finally addressed
by district administrators.
1.24 At the center of Pezone’s pedagogy is a project he calls the democratic
dialogue (Pezone and Singer, 1997; Pezone, Palacio & Rosenberg, 2003).
It has been adopted by a number of colleagues in the New Teachers Network
who first participated in the project when they visited Pezone’s classroom.
Pezone believes that the success of the dialogues depends on the gradual
development of caring, cooperative communities over the course of a year.
To encourage these communities, he works with students to create an atmosphere
where they feel free to expose their ideas, feelings, and academic proficiencies
in public without risking embarrassment or attack and being pressed into
silence. He stresses with students that the dialogues are not debates;
that as students learn about a topic the entire class “wins or loses”
1.25 The student dialogues are highly structured. Pezone believes that structure
maximizes student freedom by insuring that all students have an opportunity
to participate. It also helps to insure that classes carefully examine
statements, attitudes, and practices that may reflect biases and demean
1.26 Pezone uses dialogues to conclude units, however, preparation for the
dialogues takes place constantly. At the start of the semester, he and
his students decide on the procedures for conducting dialogues so that
everyone in class participates and on criteria for evaluating team and
individual performance. Usually students want the criteria to include
an evaluation of how well the team works together; the degree to which
substantive questions are addressed; the use of supporting evidence; the
response to statements made by the other team; whether ideas are presented
effectively; and whether individual students demonstrate effort and growth.
These criteria are codified in a scoring rubric that is reexamined before
each dialogue and changed when necessary. Students also help to define
the question being discussed. After the dialogue, students work in small
groups to evaluate the overall dialogue, the performance by their team,
and their individual participation.
1.27 During a unit, the class identifies a broad social studies issue that
they want to research and examine in greater depth. For example, after
studying the recent histories of India and China, they discussed whether
violent revolution or non-violent resistance is the most effective path
to change. On other occasions they have discussed if the achievements
of the ancient world justified the exploitation of people and whether
the United States and Europe should intervene in the internal affairs
of other countries because of the way women are treated in some cultures.
1.28 The goal of a dialogue is to examine all aspects of an issue, not to score
points at the expense of someone else. Teams are subdivided into cooperative
learning groups that collect and organize information supporting different
views. The teams also assign members as
either opening, rebuttal, or concluding speakers. During dialogues, teams
“huddle-up” to share their ideas and reactions to what is being presented
by the other side. After dialogues, students discuss what they learned
from members of the other team and evaluate the performance of the entire
1.29 An important part of the dialogue process is the involvement of students
in assessing what they have learned. In Pezone’s classes students help
develop the parameters for class projects and decide the criteria for
assessing their performance in these activities. The benefit of this involvement
for students includes a deeper understanding of historical and social
science research methods; insight into the design and implementation of
projects; a greater stake in the satisfactory completion of assignments;
and a sense of empowerment because assessment decisions are based on rules
that the classroom community has helped to shape.
Pezone uses individual and group conferences to learn what students think
about the dialogues and their impact on student thinking about democratic
process and values. Students generally feel that the dialogues give them
a personal stake in what happens in class and they feel responsible for
supporting their teams. Students who customarily are silent in class because
of fear of being ridiculed or because they are not easily understood by
the other students, become involved in speaking out. For many students,
it is a rare opportunity to engage in both decision making and open public
discussion “in front of other people.”
1.31 From the dialogues, students start to learn that democratic society involves
a combination of individual rights and initiatives with social responsibility,
collective decision-making, and shared community goals. They discover
that democracy frequently entails tension between the will of the majority
and the rights of minorities and that it cannot be taken for granted.
It involves taking risks and is something that a community must continually
work to maintain and expand. Another benefit of the dialogue process is
that it affords students the opportunity to actively generate knowledge
without relying on teacher-centered instructional methods.
1.32 Pezone finds that the year long process of defining, conducting, and evaluating
dialogues involves students in constant reflection on social studies concepts,
class goals, student interaction, and the importance of community. It
makes possible individual academic and social growth, encourages students
to view ideas critically and events from multiple perspectives, and supports
the formation of a cooperative learning environment. He believes that
when students are able to analyze educational issues, and create classroom
policy, they gain a personal stake in classroom activities and a deeper
understanding of democracy.
1.33 A number of the teachers related to the Hofstra New Teachers Network consider
themselves transformative educators, yet none of them, including either
of us, has created a model transformative classroom. It may simply be
that, although the educational goals discussed above provide a vision
of a particular kind of classroom, transformative education, like history,
is part of a process that is never finished.
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