Botswana is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. It has land borders with Zimbabwe in the northeast, South Africa in the south and southeast and with Namibia to the west.
The country is a broad tableland with a mean altitude of 3,300 ft. A vast plateau of about 4,000 ft in height, extending from near Kanye north to the Zimbabwean border, divides the country into two distinct topographical regions.
The eastern region is hilly bush country and grassland (veld). To the west lie the Okavango Swamps and the Kalahari Desert. The only sources of permanent surface water are the Chobe River in the north, the Limpopo in the east, and the Okvango in the northwest. In seasons of heavy rainfall, flood waters flow into the Makarikari Salt Pans and Lake Ngami.
The history of Botswana is characterized by migrations of peoples into the country from the north and west and particularly from the east and south, as well as internal movements of groups of people. The group which eventually emerged as most numerous, and dominant, were the Batswana. Their pattern of dividing and migrating saw the formation of numerous Tswana tribes, and their eventual occupation of all areas of the country.
The term "Batswana" refers to the ethnic group of people who speak the Setswana language and share the Sotho-Tswana culture, while in its common contemporary usage, it refers to all citizens of the Republic of Botswana, regardless of their ethnic background. The singular is "Motswana": a citizen of the country. "Tswana" is used as an adjective - for example "Tswana state" or "Tswana culture".