Cover Letter Writing
What is a Cover Letter?
A cover letter is an introduction letter most often accompanied by a
résumé for job searches, informational interviews and networking
purposes. A cover letter conveys your interest in a particular position
and/or company and highlights your qualifications, skills,
accomplishments and abilities related to your career objective.
Just as the résumé is a marketing tool to attract an initial
interest, the cover letter serves the same purpose. A professional cover
letter is essential because it is the employer’s first glance and
impression of you as a candidate. A cover letter allows you to introduce
yourself and state your objective, personalize your résumé and
highlight information that addresses the needs and interest of the
A good cover letter:
1) Focuses on the needs of the employer, not just your own
2) Answers the question: What is the employer looking for and in what
ways do I meet these qualifications
3) Highlights successes, contributions and accomplishments described
in your résumé but is not an exact carbon copy of the résumé
4) Demonstrates your knowledge of the organization, position and
5) Provides the employer with a a sample of your writing style
6) Provides the employer of a sample of your future work. For
example, if your cover letter is written poorly with misspellings and
errors, an employer will interpret your cover letter as the kind and
quality of work you will do if hired.
Have you had assignments or papers that were exceptionally difficult
to write because you only had a limited amount of space to convey a
large amount of detailed information? The same thing can be said about a
cover letter. For most people, the most difficult task in writing a
cover letter is conveying their interest in the position and unique
skills in only a relatively small amount of space. The number one error
in cover letter writing is making the letter too long and too boring.
What you want is a letter an employer can read fairly quickly and get
excited to flip the page to read more in a resume.
Just as with a résumé, the first step in writing a cover letter is
self-assessment and research. The more you know about yourself, the
position and the company, the more you can tailor and streamline your
cover letter to match what the employer is seeking, thus, saving you
Cover Letter Format
A cover letter is a business letter, therefore, there are required
elements to the heading as well as closing. For your heading, (1)
include your name and complete address. Some people choose to add a
phone number or e-mail address, which is fine, but optional. Next, (2)
list the complete date (do not hyphenate such as 12/13/05). Following
the date is, (3) the employer’s name and address. List the employer’s
name, title (if known), department and/or organization (if known) and
complete address of organization. The last component to the heading is a
greeting. Try to always find a specific name to put in the greeting
(Dear Ms. Smith/Dear Mr. Richards). Sometimes it is impossible to find a
name, however, always try to personalize the greeting such as “Dear
Selection Committee.” Never write “To Whom it May Concern” since this is
Opening Paragraph: Who You Are and What You Want
Begin with a Strong “Hook”
Catch an employers attention immediately by advertising your strengths and unique skills. Provide the reader with evidence as to why you are the best candidate for the position. Be sure to include your student status, college or university attended
or attending, field of interest and/or expected degree.
Also be sure to state why you are writing. Are you writing to submit a résumé for a specific position? Are you
writing for a company to consider your résumé for future positions? Are
you writing for an informational interview?
Dear Mr. Jones,
Having broken sales records and exceeded sales quotas in all my previous positions, and a recently completed Associate’s degree in Business from Monroe Community College, I am an ideal candidate for the Sales Manager position at Paychex.
Reference Your Information:
If writing to be considered for a specific position, you can state
where you found that listing such as a web classified ad or job posting
from a career services center. If the position was referenced by a
specific source, i.e., professional colleague, professor, alumni, then
reference the particular person.
Why That Company:
State why you are choosing that particular company or organization.
Does the mission of the organization match your values? Does it
consistently hire graduates with your major and background? Even if the
initial interest came from a personal reference source, a good
candidate will do some background research on the organization to show a
“good fit” when submitting a cover letter and résumé.
Emphasize How “You” Will Contribute to the Organization/Employer
Avoid using the pronouns “I,” “me,” and “my” consistently throughout your cover letter. It is a common mistake. Redirect the emphasis from yourself to the employer and inform them how they can benefit from “you.” Your letter should be employer centered, not self centered. Ask yourself “How can I be of service to this employer?”
Pronoun Oversure Example:
I am enclosing my resume for your review because I am very interested in obtaining a full-time position at Ace Financial to further my experience and skills in banking. I am well qualified for this position. In addition to the strong quantitative and analytical skills I have developed as a business major and in my work experience, I have a proven ability to stay focused for long hours under pressure.
I am applying for the Investment Banking Analyst position where my combination of economics training and high-tech experience will add value to your operations. Please consider the following: You will gain from my strong financial background, which includes a recent Associate in Science degree in Business Administration, coupled with experience researching and trading securities as an investment intern, resulting in returns of 200%.
Middle Paragraph(s): Summarization of Qualifications
This paragraph can be one large paragraph or broken into smaller
paragraphs. The purpose of this section is to showcase highlights from
your resume that would be of great interest to the organization and
create the idea of a “good fit.”
This section is not a carbon copy of your résumé. However, this
section can expand on content from your résumé. For example, don’t write
down every single job listed on your résumé, but focus on one or two
listings that showcase your experience and knowledge of the field.
Include specific details or examples that demonstrate your abilities.
If the job posting identified several essential skills and
qualifications, you can write how you meet them in this section. For
example, if the job posting mentions a specific software program
required, and you have experience in that software program, you can
provide more detail about your experience and knowledge working with the
software in your cover letter. You can also include “Why That Company”
in this section rather than the first paragraph depending how the
Last Paragraph: Next Step
Thank the employer for consideration and his or her time. Let the
employer know what you would like to see as the next step. Typically,
this is an interview. If you like, you can initiate the next step
letting the employer know when you will be in contact. For example, “I
will be in the Denver area the week of March 14th and will give you a
call that Monday to arrange an interview.” If you give a specific date
and time you are obligated to that time. Not following up on a stated
time shows a lack of professionalism. If you can’t guarantee that you
will follow-up, then don’t write it in the cover letter. You can always
end with, “If you have any additional questions please feel free to
contact me at ________” and give a phone number and/or e-mail.
First, (1) have a professional closing such as “Sincerely” or “Thank
You.” Then, (2) type out your full name leaving space between the
closing and your typed name for a handwritten signature. Also, don’t
forget to write, (3) “Enclosure” or “Enc” after your typed name. As a
business document, anytime you are enclosing material, i.e., your
résumé, references, application, you need to add this piece at the end
of the document.
Cover Letter Appearance Checklist
Page Length: Limit your cover letter to 3-4 brief paragraphs, aim for a total length
of one-half to three-quarters of a page.
Paragraphs: Single space your paragraphs.
Margins: Typically one inch, however, no smaller than 1⁄2 inch margins.
Font: Between 10 and 12 point for
readability. Also use a traditional business font style such as Times,
Times new Roman, Palatino, Arial, and other book print fonts. It is
best to keep the cover letter and résumé font the same style.
No Misspellings: Proofread for spelling, grammar and
typographical errors and don’t rely only on a computer spell check
Clear and Concise: Delete unnecessary
words, sentences and irrelevant information.
Consistent: Review dates and numbers for accuracy on the cover letter but also
against your resume. Also pay attention to paragraph transitions.
Explain Specific Information: Departments, program names, acronyms or any type of information that
only people familiar with the project or organization would understand.
Signature: Leave three or four blank spaces in which to sign your name. Sign your cover letter using blue ink, this implies that the letter is
Cover Letter Tips
Follow these easy tips to improve the quality of your cover letter.
Be specific when describing abilities, skills, honors, activities and experience; use examples.
Fill in the “blanks” your résumé leaves out; your cover letter provides the employer with additional information with who you are and what you’ve done.
Avoid using slang terms, jargon or exaggerating when writing your cover letter.
A cover letter should indicate that you have a clear understanding of your career goals and job objectives (put some thought and research into this process).
Avoid using the pronoun “I” when beginning every sentence.
Tailor a new cover letter for each employer, revise paragraphs for every letter.
Make sure your envelope matches the same professional look of your cover letter and résumé, avoid hand writing your envelope.
Print out a clean, fresh, copy to send (avoid white out and erasing).
Make a copy of the cover letter you send for your own files.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do I really need to send a cover letter with my résumé?
Every time you submit a résumé, or any type of application materials,
you should have a cover letter accompany it. A cover letter is another
professional element to your application. Also, sending a cover letter
is in your best interest since it provides another mechanism to convey
your interest in a particular position and/or company, your
qualifications, skills, accomplishments and abilities related to your
career objective than just submitting a résumé alone.
Do I have to address a cover letter to a specific
YES! A cover letter addressed to “Whom it May
Concern” automatically has a carbon copy feel. It is your responsibility
as a professional candidate to make an effort to find a personal
contact. Even if you can’t find a specific person after you have done
some research, still try to have a more specific general contact such as
“Dear Human Resource Manager,” “Dear Hiring Committee” or “Dear Search
Do I address salary or visa issues in the cover
NO! Just as with the résumé,
the cover letter is one of the first samples of you and your work. You
want an employer to get an initial interest, and preferably, do an
interview, before sensitive questions or information are brought up.
Is a cover letter the same as a personal statement or
letter of intent?
student confuse a cover letter with a letter of intent or personal
statement, however, these are two separate documents. Remember, a cover
letter is an introduction to your application package, which can include
a personal statement, letter of intent or any additional materials
Are cover letters only used for job applications?
Anytime you submit professional materials you should attach a cover
letter. Examples include applications for scholarships, fellowships,
admittance into degree seeking programs, just to name a few.
Sample Cover Letters
Cover Letter For a Full-Time Teaching Position Found Through UofL
Career Development Center/Symplicity
Cover letter for a Post-Graduate Position Found Through a Networking
Cover Letter for a Scholarship Application
Cover Letter for an Internship Position Found through a Company's
of Action Words